“A deeply human interaction.”

Posted by jlubans on September 29, 2014  •  Leave comment (0)

Caption: St. Paul Chamber Orchestra Cellist Joshua Koestenbaum talks with his new stand partner, Julie Albers.

As readers of my book and blog know, I am a fan of the Orpheus Chamber Orchestra; they play without a conductor and do so with a unique sound and verve, performing equal to or better than if led by a conductor. Full disclosure, as they say, I am only an “I Know What I Like” music listener but I do have some expertise in observing groups and identifying teamwork and collaboration and translating those observations into other realms. A musical performance – for all to see, out in the open, the organization in the same room as the “customers” - is a sharply focused, 1-2 hour look at how humans work together toward achieving a goal. And, the partnerships on display in musical sections (wind, string, brass, etc) present us with additional organizational microcosms.
Also, as part of my “creds”, I’ve explored the conductor’s role more than once. Among my favorites is Simone Young, the Australian maestro, now conducting in Hamburg, Germany. She invited me to sit in the Sydney Opera orchestra pit while she conducted a performance of Verdi’s Il Trovatore opera and I got to see her as musicians see her. I marvel at her joy and “boots and all” commitment to orchestral music - in rehearsal and in performance - and how she brings her musicians along. You can read about her in Leading from the Middle.
And, while I was in Riga as a Fulbrighter in 2011, one of my Fulbright partners was the saxophonist Chris Beaty who now teaches saxophone at Texas A&M University - Commerce. He’s given me numerous insights into how jazz players interact.

Tik un tā (anyway), Chris’ wife, Eileen MacNaughton, an accomplished violinist, and their three musically gifted children were also in Riga. So, I took notice when Eileen linked on Facebook to a story about musical “stand partners” written by Max Raimi, a violist at the Chicago Symphony Orchestra.
Mr. Raimi tells us that string partners are the only musicians to share a stand - and the musical score - with a partner. You may think that is interesting but … well, inconsequential. Yet, how it plays out offers us numerous insights about our relationships with partners at work, how well we get along or not or why. Who turns the pages, who gives up a few notes while turning the pages, how far or near is the stand, how supportive are we of each other are just a few of the pieces of the stand partner relationship that can easily apply to us. There is, according to Mr. Raimi, a protocol to be followed between stand partners, just like there may be an evolved protocol between work colleagues. Do we defer to our partner or go solo, like the timpanist, or do we share in the music and the “how” of playing it - the tone, the color, the sound, and the interpretation - or do we dominate?
The best stand partners display these qualities:
1. Make sacrifices for the good of the partnership. “Page turning is an acquired skill. Turn too soon, and your partner may miss a few notes at the end of the page. Too late, and the notes on the next page aren’t visible in time. A good page turner may have to sacrifice a few notes to make sure that the stand partner doesn’t miss any.”
2. Be diplomatic in all you do. “When stand partners don’t get along, life can be miserable.” Just like in the 9-5 work realm, “you will be ‘sitting together’” – working together - “again and again in the course of your careers. If issues are not settled peaceably, they may result in an exhausting feud….” Amen.
3. Ask permission, a simple courtesy, before marking up the score or to trying a new technique in your playing. Don’t leave your partner in the dark.
4. Be supportive, not judgmental. “(O)n occasion there can be an acoustic quirk whereby you hear your stand partner’s playing more clearly than you hear your own. If you play a passage particularly well, often your stand partner is the only person who knows it. And if you miscount, or play a wrong note, or play something dreadfully out of tune, your shameful little secret is entrusted to your stand partner.” So, offer your support, not your judgment. Your partner knows full well she could have done better.
5. Listen well and give feedback to your partner. If he or she has played a part especially well, let them know it. “Etiquette usually requires that your stand partner acknowledge your artistry with subtle applause,” like a light tap on the music or a faint foot shuffle. What variations on “subtle applause” can you bring to the workplace?
6. Be in tune with your partner. “Good stand partners are very sensitive to each other’s playing. But still, you each have your own musical styles. If you are both attentive,” – listening to each other – “you find yourselves in a wordless conversation about how the music should go.”
7. Understand the partnership’s role in contributing to the success of the overall organization. “I particularly enjoy passages in which we play different lines in harmony. We are at once blending together in our own little duet and contributing to the whole orchestral texture.”
8. Problem solve with your partner. “It is one thing to work out a difficult passage on your own. But if the two of you can play it together, …, you approach it with far more confidence at the concert.”
9. Be a companion to your partner. “It may seem strange, but to play in an orchestra can at times be a lonely endeavor…. A sympathetic stand partner can be a lifeline.” Through companionship, “(e)ven without a word being exchanged, you enjoy a deeply human interaction.”

@Copyright John Lubans 2014

Friday Fable. Aesop’s “THE TREES AND THE AXE”*

Posted by jlubans on September 25, 2014  •  Leave comment (0)

Caption: The woodman pleading his case. Illustration by A. Rackham, 1912.

“A Woodman went into the forest and begged of the Trees the favour of a handle for his Axe. The principal Trees at once agreed to so modest a request, and unhesitatingly gave him a young ash sapling, out of which he fashioned the handle he desired. No sooner had he done so than he set to work to fell the noblest Trees in the wood. When they saw the use to which he was putting their gift, they cried, ‘Alas! alas! We are undone, but we are ourselves to blame. The little we gave has cost us all: had we not sacrificed the rights of the ash, we might ourselves have stood for ages.’"

In my 9-5 working days, some of what I did – like streamlining and reducing complexity - was viewed akin to the trees giving an ax handle to the woodcutter. One of my daily battle cries was to reduce backlogs. “He Never Met a Backlog He Liked” would serve well as my career’s epitaph. Many of my peers would do well under another: “They Never Met A Backlog They Didn’t Like.” If librarians had anything like “pissing contests” one of them was for bragging rights to the largest backlog, some numbering in the millions of unprocessed materials. They believed, among a multitude of lofty reasons, that a backlog was a good thing, a positive like inventoried factory orders; a guarantee there’d be work (and a raison d'être) into the next millennium. My take was that backlogs were a burden to the library and soured our relationships with readers and administrators. Backlogged, unavailable books, and other bottlenecks, congested access lanes, tied up beaucoup bucks in maintenance, created delays for readers, and harmed the image of the library and librarian as information provider.
I was not arming the woodcutter. In my day, every improvement, every backlog eliminated, resulted in freed up budget dollars for other library purposes; you see, we got to keep the money we saved. Not long after I'd left library land, higher powers applied mandatory budget cuts and forced previously unwilling managers to reduce expenses. The forced streamlining – a form of hostage taking: reduce costs, keep you job - did result in improvements, but the savings were surrendered to the central university budget to pay for more “with-it” programs, like an Olympic-size hot tub for the student union. While many of my former peers kept their jobs, the woodcutter was now loose in the library.

Leading from the Middle Library of the Week: Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, 4400 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA

@Copyright John Lubans 2014

Genius and/or "Competent Jerk"?

Posted by jlubans on September 23, 2014  •  Leave comment (0)


Thomas Alva Edison’s cast iron marker stands in a public square for all to see in downtown Memphis, Tennessee (the home of Elvis Presley’s Graceland). The bottom half of the historical marker’s text caught my eye: “Trying to invent an auto-repeat key, he managed to connect New Orleans with New York directly for the first time after the war. As a result he was discharged by a jealous superior, and he left Memphis.” (Emphasis added.)

I could identify with that statement; I’ve seen, in my career, jealous and petty supervisors make life unbearable for the better than average worker; someone the paranoid boss thinks is stealing his thunder. And, reading the Memphis marker, I get the impression that the bad boss cost this at times forlorn Mississippi city, the associated prestige of the remarkable Edison, the inventor of the incandescent light bulb and a thousand other marvels including, a “cock-roach shocker”!

Caption: The young Thomas.
Now, we’ll never get the unnamed “jealous” superior’s story, but as I dug a little deeper into Mr. Edison’s history I sensed that maybe the story was not as simple as an outclassed boss’ back- stabbing an overachieving subordinate. It may have been rank insubordination. One biographer sums up that young Edison’s cocky attitude “… must at times have been unbearable.”
By 1876 Edison was famous and prospering. He started a research lab in West Orange, New Jersey and staffed it with engineers and others eager to tie their wagons to Edison’s star. These were Edison’s “muckers”, as he called them. He was the self-designated “chief mucker.” When Edison had an idea – and he had thousands - the muckers would start testing, experimenting and trying to make the idea work, to bring it into production. The average workweek was six days for 55 hours and muckers were paid workmen’s wages. But, when hot on the trail of some idea, the days stretched far into the night, aptly illustrating Edison’s most famous quote: "Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration."
What was it like to work with Edison? “(A) mucker said that he (Edison) ‘could wither one with his biting sarcasm or ridicule one into extinction.’” But, another mucker stated, “'The privilege which I had being with this great man for six years was the greatest inspiration of my life.’"
I wonder if Mr. Edison was somewhat like Apple’s Steve Jobs?

As we say in Latvia, “tik un tā” (anyway), it is interesting to reflect on famous people and their taking untraveled paths – bushwhacking new trails to unforeseen vistas. I recall an insightful and bright young collegaue at work who never could see himself as anything less than the center of all things . When I asked him to draw a picture of a team, he was in the center – no doubt, the team captain - directing others. When I asked him to draw the department as circles, his was always the largest. He reminds me of Edison. This colleague moved on from the library realm into another industry and did well – or so I think. Some might have termed him an “incompetent jerk”*, but at worst, in my mind, he was a “competent jerk” and, if you got on his right side, he could be a charming “star” performer.

*The jerk terms are discussed in Casciaro, Tiziana and Miguel Sousa Lobo, “Competent Jerks, Lovable Fools and the Formation of Social Networks,” HBR June 2005

@Copyright John Lubans 2014

Friday Fable. Aesop’s “VENUS AND THE CAT”*

Posted by jlubans on September 19, 2014  •  Leave comment (0)

Caption: Illustration by Samuel Croxall (c.1690 – 1752) in an 1867 edition of his Aesop, foretelling the outcome of this story.

“A Cat fell in love with a handsome young man, and begged the goddess Venus to change her into a woman. Venus was very gracious about it, and changed her at once into a beautiful maiden, whom the young man fell in love with at first sight and shortly afterwards married. One day Venus thought she would like to see whether the Cat had changed her habits as well as her form; so she let a mouse run loose in the room where they were. Forgetting everything, the young woman had no sooner seen the mouse than up she jumped and was after it like a shot: at which the goddess was so disgusted that she changed her back again into a Cat.”

“Nature will out.” Or, as George Fyler put it: “Nature exceeds nurture.”

Perhaps an Aesopic example of genetic engineering gone bad? Or, is this rampant self-righteousness: beasts will be beasts, man’s carnal nature cannot be suppressed, once a thief, always a thief, and so on?

*Source: AESOP'S FABLES A NEW TRANSLATION BY V. S. VERNON JONES WITH AN INTRODUCTION By G. K. CHESTERTON AND ILLUSTRATIONS BY ARTHUR RACKHAM (Publisher: London: W. Heinemann; New York: Doubleday, Page & Co., 1912). Available at Gutenberg.

@Copyright John Lubans 2014


Posted by jlubans on September 15, 2014  •  Leave comment (0)

I often use the “Human Compass” as an ending activity in my seminars and classes. When everyone has his or her say it usually goes pretty well; taking time for that to happen is essential to its effectiveness. I use the compass to help focus participants’ thoughts, individually and collectively, on where they’ve been and where they want to be; a thoughtful summing up and beginning.
The Human Compass is based – in an admittedly New Age take – on the Native American Medicine Wheel tradition. I got the idea from “The Outward Bound EARTHBOOK; a Field Guide to Environmental Concerns.
How does the Compass work?

Caption: Explaining the Human Compass at the Leading Change seminar.
Prior to the ceremony I mark, with my pocket compass, the four directions. I do not want to mess up by facing East when the direction is actually the South or the North. And – here’s the new age bit - my knowing the actual orientation deepens, at least for me, the meaning of what I am doing. The simple compass and its points – in this e-world – helps ground us, helps connect us to nature - the earth, and to the reality - the sky, around us.
At the start, to set a reflective mood, I quote Chief Seattle: “What is man (or woman) without the beasts? If all the beasts were gone, men would die from a great loneliness of spirit.”
I then tell them that I’ll be describing each compass point and that they should listen closely because I will ask them to move to their place in this circle, in this wheel.
Caption: I use drawings (made for me by Librarian & Graphic Recorder Carol Vollmer) as mnemonic devices for the listener and me.
Starting with the East – where everything begins - I describe the meaning of the compass points.
“Yellow is East. The home of the Eagle. The place where things begin. We experience illumination here - the sunrise - springtime, spirituality, perception, and intuition. We are inspired here. The eagle lives here, seeing clearly from far away.”
I then place the picture on the compass point.
Continuing, I identify the other compass points and leave a picture at each point:
“Green is South. The home of the Mouse. Feelings and emotions are honored. Human relationships are nurtured. How we relate to others is highly valued….”
“Brown is West. The home of the Bear. We are rational, analytical and introspective….”
“White is North. The home of the Buffalo. We face challenges and hardships with courage and wisdom … pushing on through thick and thin.”
I sum up the finished circle, telling them that all parts of the circle are equal and necessary to make us whole and in balance. The human compass is, after all, the circle of life.
Then it’s their turn. I ask, “Where are you in the circle? Move to it.”
Caption: Where are you in the circle of life?
When everyone is located, I ask each: “Now, tell us why you are there. It’s OK to be silent.”
Caption: The go-around.
After the last person has spoken, I tend to pause and look over the circle in silence, taking in what everyone has said. Then, I make another request: “Now, move to where you want to be next on this wheel and tell us why. It’s OK to be silent.”

Caption: Explaining the move to the future.
After each has spoken or not, I take a moment to reflect. At my most recent Human Compass, the one in the pictures, I thanked the group for taking part. I then told them about a part of the ritual I usually skip: a tradition among the Lakota Sioux that after each person has spoken for everyone to strongly say, “Ho!”, in affirmation and support.
“So, I can say to you, “Ho!” Not missing a beat - out under the rain clouds and near the forest and pond - the group responded back, “Ho!”
I’d not expected that; it made for the perfect ending.

NOTE: For the “Laimes Ligzda”, Pārmaiņu vadība: Leading Change seminar, August 25-28, 2014, I had the support of translator extraordinaire Rasma Mozere. Her translation into Latvian of what I said about this Native American tradition had everything to do with the participants’ understanding and engaging.)

@2014 Copyright John Lubans.

Friday Fable. Aesop’s “THE CAT AND THE COCK”*

Posted by jlubans on September 11, 2014  •  Leave comment (0)

Insert cat and cock
“A Cat pounced on a Cock, and cast about for some good excuse for making a meal off him, for Cats don't as a rule eat Cocks, and she knew she ought not to. At last she said, ‘You make a great nuisance of yourself at night by crowing and keeping people awake: so I am going to make an end of you.’ But the Cock defended himself by saying that he crowed in order that men might wake up and set about the day's work in good time, and that they really couldn't very well do without him. ‘That may be,’ said the Cat, ‘but whether they can or not, I'm not going without my dinner’; and she killed and ate him.”

“The want of a good excuse never kept a villain from crime.”

Or, as Caxton had it in 1484: “And thus is it of hym whiche is custommed to lyue by rauyn / For he can not kepe ne absteyne hym self fro hit / For alle the xcusacions that be leyd on hym.”

Sir Roger L'Estrange (1692) offered another moral: “’Tis an easy Matter to find a Staff to beat a Dog. Innocence is no Protection against the arbitrary Cruelty of a tyrannical Power.”

And so it is, this little story applies geo-politically as we see a nearby tyrant making absurd excuses to violate another people. As well, it applies to the petty and jealous boss, who, envious of a more-than-effective subordinate goes out of his way to find reasons to fire him: “ For he can not kepe ne absteyne hym self fro hit”, his envy is so great.

For the literary scholars out there, the Vernon Jones telling (1912) leaves out the cat’s accusing the cock of incestuous relationships as another excuse for killing him. L'Estrange and Caxton, however, dish all about this barnyard behavior.

*Source: AESOP'S FABLES A NEW TRANSLATION BY V. S. VERNON JONES WITH AN INTRODUCTION By G. K. CHESTERTON AND ILLUSTRATIONS BY ARTHUR RACKHAM (Publisher: London: W. Heinemann; New York: Doubleday, Page & Co., 1912). Available at Gutenberg.

Still kicking after all these years: Jennifer A. Bartlett, in her 2014 column, “The New and Noteworthy” includes several paragraphs about my 2010 book and this blog. Her essay “The Power Deep in the Org Chart: Leading from the Middle” appears in the latest issue of the online magazine from the American Library Association: Library Leadership & Management, 2014. Ms. Bartlett’s column “focuses on recent publications involving the recognition and development of leadership skills at all levels of the library organization, not only those positions at the top of the organizational chart.” She is Head of Reference Services at the University of Kentucky Libraries.

@Copyright John Lubans 2014

What if?

Posted by jlubans on September 09, 2014  •  Leave comment (0)

I like to mix up my teaching – no, I am not alluding to confusing my students. Rather, it is about how I teach: some lecture; some guided discussion of readings by small groups; some game-like activities that get everyone involved in doing the theory; and, some small group tasks that emphasize, in imaginative ways, lecture points. For me, lecture is not very effective. Why? It could be me, it could be the powerpoints, it could be the topic, and it could be the students. If I could get rid of lecture, I would. But, lecture seems necessary for setting forth basic concepts and content, for laying a foundation. What I say in my lecture helps with the intellectual framing of specific terms and concepts. Or, does it?
A “What if” lingers. What if we took away lecture and used readings and guided activities and discussion exclusively? Would learning happen? Less or more?
(If I take this on, and I just might, I’ll report back.)
I’ve written about using children’s books to underscore, indeed to teach, particular concepts covered in lectures and in readings. My most recent application of this technique was at a 3.5-day seminar about leading change. Participants were divided randomly into small groups, assigned an illustrated book and told to respond to a question: “What most important part of change do you derive from this story? Agree on and DRAW IT (emphasis added) to share with the large group including a summary of the story so others understand.”
Each of four groups went off with a book, crayons, and a blank sheet of flip-chart size paper.
Caption: One of the four titles used in conceptualizing change or not.

I’d selected four titles: “Changes, Changes”, “Let’s Do Nothing”, “Mon. Saguette and His Baguette” and, “Naked Mole Rat Gets Dressed”.
Each tells a story about change and how people (mole rats, too) encounter and respond to change. Prior to the seminar, the students had read about a dozen articles on change, its theories and its application in organizations, including libraries.

Caption: Re-telling the story, Changes, Changes.

Caption: One group’s summary of key points in Mon. Saguette.

From a teacher’s perspective, I’d like to know if this activity could influence how a person responds to her next instance of change. Will this little exercise, among peers, suggest new ways, new approaches to dealing with the next real-life change occurrence? Or, is that too much to hope for? Perhaps not.
I look at the above drawing and am impressed with what the students
took away from this little book, the rays emanating from the sun of creativity:
Using for another action
Adapting to the situation
Looking for added value
Going back to the previous situation

Now, I could have listed out the same points, in a whiz-bang powerpoint keyed to disco music and flashing lights. Somehow, I doubt if my lecture or media would have been anywhere near as effective as this group’s displaying the relevance of this story to our topic.

For the record: I am happy and honored to announce that I have been awarded a Fulbright Specialist Program Grant to teach at the University of Latvia in Riga from September 15 – October 20, 2014. These six weeks will give me an opportunity to test some of the ideas presented in this latest blog entry as well as to impart the concepts of freedom at work, the democratic workplace - among other organizational theories – and the process and challenge of leading from the middle.

@ Copyright John Lubans 2014

Friday Fable. Aesop’s “The Two Pots”*

Posted by jlubans on September 05, 2014  •  Leave comment (0)

Caption: By Heinrich Steinhowel,(1412-1482).

“A RIVER carried down in its stream two Pots, one made of earthenware and the other of brass. The Earthen Pot said to the Brass Pot, ‘Pray keep at a distance and do not come near me, for if you touch me ever so slightly, I shall be broken in pieces, and besides, I by no means wish to come near you.’”

“Equals make the best friends.”

A chance winter’s visit to a British pub in the English countryside had me in an eddy alongside a rushing current of Brit aristocrats straight out of an Evelyn Waugh novel. They were downright dashing in their tailored long coats and bright chitchat in Oxford and Cambridge tones. However fleeting my impression, I envied them their existence in the pages of Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage: country mansions, valets, chauffeurs, nights “on the tiles” and high teas. They swept past me talking of this and that with a fluency I’d never achieve. Aye, there I felt like a clay pot. Much later, I thought of that keenly envying moment and concluded it was not the pot you were in, but what you grew in it that mattered.
But still, I think now and then how a bespoke suit from Saville Row would be nice, even more so if I knew what bespoke meant. Hee-haw!

*Source: AESOP’S FABLES By Aesop Translated by George Fyler Townsend (probably from this edition): “Three hundred and fifty Aesop’s fables”. Chicago, Belford, Clarke & Co., 1886.
Available at the Gutenberg Project.

Copyright John Lubans 2014

Changes, Changes!

Posted by jlubans on September 02, 2014  •  Leave comment (0)

Caption: A farewell photo.

And "Changes, Changes!" could well have been a better title for my Leading Change (Pārmaiņu vadība), August 25-28, 2014 seminar in Latvia. (See below* for the Summary Abstract from the agenda.)
First, there was a last minute change in the venue site. Our new venue, “Laimes Ligzda” (Happy Nest) was not far from the original venue and, as change sometimes turns out, a change for the better: smaller, more intimate, an equally beautiful terrain of forest, ponds and fields and – a bit of karma here – only 8 kilometers away from where I was born!
Another change agent was the weather, surprise!
I’d planned the agenda to be spent outdoors about a third of the 3.5 days, but the autumnal mists, chilly drizzles, sporadic downpours and gusting winds made staying inside a better option.

Caption: The “Happy Nest”, our venue near Cēsis, Latvia.

Of course, some of the events – e.g., a 60 minute paired “walk and talk” into the forest – would not work indoors. As change sometimes requires, we had to improvise, juggle the agenda, extrapolate on the planned activities, and to keep an eye out for sunshine to get a few outside moments.
We managed. By we I mostly mean the participants whose engaged involvement never faltered, unaffected by changes, changes!
My seminars depend on this – engagement and involvement and focus by participants. Otherwise, we don’t accomplish half of what we set out to achieve. I saw numerous examples of creative resourcefulness, insightful transfers from theory to problem solving tasks, and relationship building.
Here are a few pictures that might get across some of what I am trying to say:
Caption: Scoring and changing, applying Deming's PDSA change concept.
Caption: Throwers strategizing.
Caption: Teamwork.

Finally, as an indicator of how the seminar went, here’s the plus/delta, an ending exercise in which participants get to tell me what worked and what could have been better:

Plus/Delta (BTW, the word for Change)
Variety of method
Presentations by students at end of seminar
Rasma (translator)
Books/Reports/Drawings by students
Organization of seminar
All motion games
Not too much theory
Theory and practice
Film (Dream Team 1935) “Sapņu komanda 1935”
Food, Fire, Rooms, & Pirts (sauna).
Personal contact among participants
Beautiful setting
Weather (rain, cloudy, cool, windy). This one delta was also acknowledged as a plus.

Sponsored by the University of Latvia, its Library and the Department of Information and Library Studies in the Faculty of Social Sciences under the leadership of Dr. Iveta Gudakovska and Dr. Baiba Holma.

Together, we will consider theories of change, leadership, followership, team development, conflict, staff empowerment, and motivation. We will examine these topics from both internal and external perspectives, using our expertise from inside the library profession and pursuing ideas from outside our profession. Topics will be explored through readings, lectures, small group guided discussions, interspersed with films. Our venue, “Laimes Ligzda”, provides a unique setting in which to take time for self-reflection and team projects as we learn how we lead/follow and want to lead/follow to achieve organizational goals, to bring about changes for the better.

Course objectives and Individual goals are three-fold:
1. New ideas and strategies in leading, following and introducing and managing change will be compared and contrasted to traditional management principles. What do I keep, what will I add to my management style? How can I manage successful change and how can I avoid failing at change efforts.
2. Networking will allow me to share my own expertise and enhance my repertoire as I engage in peer discussion and guidance. This seminar will be a chance to meet new people; make the most of that opportunity. Through shared experiences I can learn what worked, what didn’t. What are causes for difficult or failed change; what promotes successful change?
3. Experience teaching and learning strategies that I may transfer to my home institution, influencing my role as change agent and innovator.

Knowledge: We hope to deepen our understanding of organizational change and the elements necessary for successful change and innovation. We expect to heighten our understanding of motivation, leadership and followership.
Skills: We will seek to improve communication skills, teamwork and to consider the advantages of a genuine participatory style of management, which can lead to a more welcoming culture for change.

Copyright John Lubans 2014