Leading from the Middle" promotes a democratic, empowered organization, based on my leadership experiences and on research. The best work places empower staff to achieve their full potential; the less command and control, the better the product and service.
Library Journal review: “highly recommended”. Book List: “great reading…”
This blog augments my book with weekly notes. In 2011 I was a Fulbrighter and taught in Latvia, Croatia and Lithuania. In 2013 I was a Visiting Professor at the University of Latvia teaching an 8-week class on the Democratic Workplace.
I'm on the Fulbright Specialist Roster to teach about management and democratic organization concepts.

Friday Fable. Aesop’s “The Kid and the Wolf”*

Posted by jlubans on August 28, 2014  •  Leave comment (0)

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Caption: "Who's your daaaa-aady? Who's your daaaa-aady?"

“A KID standing on the roof of a house, out of harm's way, saw a Wolf passing by and immediately began to taunt and revile him. The Wolf, looking up, said, ‘Sirrah! I hear thee: yet it is not thou who mockest me, but the roof on which thou art standing.’"

“Time and place often give the advantage to the weak over the strong.”
Or, from another moralist:
“Do not say anything at any time that you would not say at all times.”

In Oklahoma they say, “Don’t let your alligator mouth overrun your canary tail.” I learned pretty much to ignore the nay-saying and nit-picking of my proverbial "roof critics". Like the wolf, I knew who was doing the talking! Had these critics proof of their actions and achievements than I might have been impressed and taken notice. But, invariably, the loudest (and hollowest) mocking came from those with the weakest records.

*Source: AESOP’S FABLES By Aesop Translated by George Fyler Townsend (probably from this edition): “Three hundred and fifty Aesop’s fables”. Chicago, Belford, Clarke & Co., 1886.
Available at the Gutenberg Project.

Copyright 2014 John Lubans

Vincent’s Brother.

Posted by jlubans on August 26, 2014  •  Leave comment (0)

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Caption: Top: Vincent on left, brother Theo on right. Both by Vincent Van Gogh. Bottom: Johanna Bonger (Van Gogh) by Johan Cohen Gosschalk, 1905. Johanna published Vincent's letters to Theo following the deaths of both brothers.

This is more of a place keeper than the full blog. I am in the Latvian countryside leading a seminar from Aug 25-28 on Leading Change or as they say in Latvian: Pārmaiņu Vadība. Off to a great start, in the rain and wind yesterday; today promising sunshine. Good spirits among these 13 participants.
But, back to Theo Van Gogh, younger brother to Vincent. I have a Van Gogh calendar, the weekly kind, bound with illustrations and commentary on each pictured print. He was a frequent correspondent with Vincent and offered him unstinting support throughout his short but brilliant life. Vincent’s letters to Theo include descriptions of what the artist was seeing, experiencing and doing. Theo’s wife, Johanna , also played a role in friendship and support for the struggling artist. The couple bought Vincent’s work – a few others did as well – but Joanna took it a step further; she followed Vincent’s suggestions on how the art should be displayed. I believe that kind act had to bolster Vincent’s confidence and commitment to his vision. I want to develop this theme of support and what it means to anyone in a low spot of one’s life.
So more on that soon. For the now, back to the seminar.

@Copyright 2014 John Lubans

Friday Fable. Lubans’ “The Traveler and the Leaf.”

Posted by jlubans on August 21, 2014  •  Leave comment (0)

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A traveler in the mountains faced a challenge: crossing a chasm on a crumbling log. The chasm was too wide to leap over. Far below, water rushed over stones and boulders. While fearful of heights, the traveler knew he had no choice but to use the log, however rickety. Gathering his courage, he stood on the end of the log, hoping to find his balance. His legs trembled and faltered; this was not going well at all. He reached out to some nearby tree branches to steady himself. Surprisingly, as his fingers touched a cluster of leaves, he felt gently supported in the stillness, his balance leveled out. He gave a leaf a gentle tug but it did not give. He calmed down, took a deep breath and stepped along the log.

Later, as he ate over a fire, the traveler reflected on how he had been supported by a cluster of tremulous leaves, attached to a few flimsy twigs....
And so it is in the world, when a kind gesture, or a smile of encouragement, or a quite word of support – as seemingly insignificant as a leaf - helps someone meet and overcome an anxious moment.

Copyright John Lubans 2014

Change: Multi-faceted Rotoni

Posted by jlubans on August 19, 2014  •  Leave comment (0)

Insert Simpson, trying is the first step toward failure now in Ratnieki folder
Change is good. Change is inevitable. Change is the only constant. Life is change, Change is law. Nothing stands still. Embrace change. And, so on.
As I prepare to impart wisdom (or something passing for that) on leading change*, I’m focused on all things change. Is change something done to us or is it something we do to others? If the latter, we may be more willing to embrace change than if we are in the “done to” group. So, how we see change and how enthusiastic we are depends in large part on where we are when.
There’s a country song that comes to mind when I'm in a “done to” change effort: “How Can Anything That Sounds So Good Make Me Feel So Bad?”
Often, we are not leading change; we are in fact following. Change comes upon us and we have little choice in the matter. In library land, the roll out of the Internet profoundly changed the way libraries were and are being used. Not long after the first self-service DVD, the OPAC, and the Yahoo search engine, we all knew there was a coming sea change. But, many of us confirmed - through our actions - the Kübler-Ross model when confronted with sudden change: Denial.
The best libraries, with the best leaders and followers, changed their services with a far greater emphasis on out-reach. One benefit of fewer students at the reference desk was that there was more staff time to go to classrooms and to teaching departments. Another positive in the move from paper to electronic was that our faculty colleagues were bemused and bewildered by what was happening. They knew paper, but now they needed our help to understand and use the electronic; again, the best led libraries, were the most effective in providing that assistance. Faculty and librarian relationships evolved and improved. Those libraries led change and avoided being run over on the information highway.
This shift from paper to electronic also, gives insights into the timing of change. When do we see the matter as urgent? Do we begin the change in good times or when we are about busted? It may be easier in the latter – it’s all doom and gloom, so there’s little resistance – but the best time for change is when the blue bird of happiness is a-wing and all is rosy. That’s the best time for creative thought and when the best leaders begin to build support for the future.
The better a leader (or follower), the better he or she anticipates and interprets the signals from what is barreling down the road. However, early efforts to get the organization moving forward come with risk. Some will ask: “Why fix something not broken?” The implication is that there is no need to change and that you (the person seeking change) are wrong.
I came across a change formula, one that I will use in my workshop. I think it compactly explains the essential elements (and difficulties) in changing something and it also suggests the leader’s responsibilities:
C = D x V x F > R
C = Change
D = Dissatisfaction with the current organizational system
V = Clear vision of the organizational goals for the future
F = Practical first steps
R = Resistance to change that is present in the organization
One of the most popular change metaphors is Kurt Lewin’s freeze, thaw, and refreeze. Imagine a square cube of ice that you would like to make into a triangle. Simple: Thaw into water, pour the water into a triangle form, freeze and there you have it.
Imagine now an organization, say of 50 people, - very square - going about doing their business, sort of, but not as well as they should or could. That’s the frozen state. So now, we unfreeze it; we want something more nimble and less expensive. How do we do that? How do we get those 50 people into a liquid state – metaphorically speaking, please – so they can be re-frozen into inter-linking circles or a multi-faceted rotoni shape? How do we even know what shape we want?
So, change is not simple. Nor are the complex guides to change as transparent as we would like or as easy to apply. If anything, because the helpful ones recognize the complexity of change, they obscure the very process they claim to clarify. Do I mean to suggest that John Kotter’s 8 steps for change is not much better than Lewin's melted ice cube? Probably, yes. Under Kotter’s theory we are expected to do the following, pretty much in the given order. I’ve added in brackets, another consultant’s more casual take on these 8 steps).
Create Urgency (Increase urgency)
Form a Powerful Coalition (Build the guiding team)
Create a Vision for Change (Get the right vision)
Communicate the Vision (Communicate for buy-in)
Remove Obstacles (Empowerment)
Create Short-Term Wins (Create short-term wins)
Build on the Change (Don’t let up)
Anchor the Changes in Corporate Culture (Make it stick)

I’ve been part of many change efforts. Some succeeded, – we were lucky – while others failed. I am sure I could look at Kotter’s list and find reasons for failure or success. That’s helpful. No doubt I could have become a better change agent had I spent some time reflecting on Kotter’s theory and my personal experience. And, that’s pretty much the advice I'll offer the seminar participants.

* ”Leading Change”: A seminar on leading and following change in libraries and other organizations. Sponsored by the University of Latvia. August 25-28. By John Lubans & Sheryl Anspaugh. At Ratnieki Conference Center, near Sigulda, Latvia. Instruction in English. Cost: 170 €. Includes tuition, accommodation, meals and transport from Riga.
On August 29th there’s a special reason to be in Latvia: the grand opening of the National Library of Latvia in Riga!

Copyright John Lubans 2014

Friday Fable. Lubans’ “The Fat Baron”*

Posted by jlubans on August 15, 2014  •  Leave comment (0)

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Caption: Book cover by Frank Lieberman (1946)

With the collusion of a corrupt king, a baron plundered his neighbors. The baron grew fat; the neighbors waned thin. After the death of the monarch, the baron was brought to justice and jailed. The judge restored the ill-gotten gains to the neighbors and the remainder he put into the public treasury. The baron’s family pleaded with the judge to return this wealth; it had not been stolen - rather these were “investments” made through the family’s hard work and should not be confiscated.
The judge pondered and then remembered the Judgment of Bocchyris.
His verdict: Just like the plundered neighbors who daily saw the baron grow large while they starved, so now the baron’s family could come to the treasury once a year and gaze upon “their” money. And so was the family’s wish granted but not in the way they intended.

*Laura Gibbs, the Latin scholar, who recently wrote about the Judgment of Bocchyris, inspired my fable as did a recent news article about a crook’s family in Detroit claiming as their’s, the cash and other property seized by the police.

N.B. ”Leading Change”: A seminar on leading and following change in libraries and other organizations. Sponsored by the University of Latvia. August 25-28. By John Lubans & Sheryl Anspaugh. At Ratnieki Conference Center, near Sigulda, Latvia. Instruction in English. Cost: 170 €. Includes tuition, accommodation, meals and transport from Riga.

On August 29th there’s a special reason to be in Latvia: the grand opening of the National Library of Latvia in Riga!

Copyright John Lubans 2014

Why not?

Posted by jlubans on August 12, 2014  •  Leave comment (0)

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Caption: Wilbur deciding what to wear.

One of the activities I’ve developed for the Leading Change seminar* is for participants to read a children’s book and identify and build upon aspects of change found in that book. Mo Williams’ “Naked Mole Rat Gets Dressed” is one of the four books I’ll be using.**
Williams’ story is about Wilbur, a non-conformist who loves fashion but runs into rancorous opposition from the naked legions. They want to stay in the buff, but more importantly – as is too often the case with most people unhappy about change - they don’t want anyone else to change. They want Wilbur to cease and desist with the button-down shirts and bell-bottom trousers!
Wilbur remains puzzled and asks, “Why not?” Since Wilbur’s not one “ to go along to get along” (an accommodator), the mole rats turn for a ruling to Grand-pah, the patriarch naked mole rat.
Fortunately for our clothes-loving hero the Patriarch muses and concludes “Why not?” And so now the naked mole rat community includes the clothed and the unclothed and everyone is A-OK. (Or, so we hope.)
Clearly a child’s book requires a suspension of disbelief – perhaps less so among librarians - but there’s much to be learned about change in Wilbur’s tale that applies to our grown-up world. Even when we think about another outcome – the Patriarch siding with the naked hordes – there’s something to learn. Change rarely goes smoothly and differences are not well tolerated. Any hint of oddness, of queerness, can become off-putting. It’s what change agents have to contend with in storybooks and in the work place.
Some of my most productive results as a team leader came from asking Why? and Why not? and Why do we do this? I also asked, What happens if we stop? What’s the worst that can happen?
My asking those questions upset some people – for them it was obvious why we do what we did and anyone questioning the status quo was a fool.
But many staff were willing to re-think what was important and what was not – they’d had their doubts all along! My simple Why? gave them permission to experiment and to change the status quo. They could see the labor savings in stopping something redundant and applying those savings to where the need was greater.
Wilbur’s openness to change reminds me of an exchange between Saul Zabar (of NYCs premium deli store, Zabar’s) and one of his daughters, Rachel, a film maker. They were in the kitchen and Saul was explaining why he experiments with food, even though he “almost never” comes up with a success. “Anyone can do it right”, Saul said. “Guess what would happen when something you are not supposed to do comes out good?” That’s Wilbur-thinking. Still, Rachel was not convinced about his latest culinary concoction of hash and cucumbers. “Euuuw” is how she put it!

*N.B. ”Leading Change”: A seminar on leading and following change in libraries and other organizations. Sponsored by the University of Latvia. August 25-28. By John Lubans & Sheryl Anspaugh. At Ratnieki Conference Center, near Sigulda, Latvia. Instruction in English. Cost: 170 €. Includes tuition, accommodation, meals and transport from Riga.
On August 29th there’s a special reason to be in Latvia: the grand opening of the National Library of Latvia in Riga!

**Also, these three books:
“Changes, Changes” by Pat Hutchins.
“Let’s Do Nothing” by Tony Fucile.
“Mon. Saguette and His Baguette” by Frank Asch.

Libraries with Leading from the Middle: University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, USA.

@Copyright 2014 John Lubans

Friday Fable. Aesop’s “The Crow and the Serpent”*

Posted by jlubans on August 08, 2014  •  Leave comment (0)

crow
“A CROW in great want of food saw a Serpent asleep in a sunny nook, and flying down, greedily seized him. The Serpent, turning about, bit the Crow with a mortal wound. In the agony of death, the bird exclaimed: ‘O unhappy me! who have found in that which I deemed a happy windfall the source of my destruction.’"

And, so it can be at work. Sometimes, in haste, what we think is the best solution turns out to be the worst. The difficulty for the manager is knowing when to “leap” on a solution and when to “look” and think twice. In an organization of “yes people”, accommodators, and compromisers, the lack of spirited disagreement can lead to poor choices.

*Source: AESOP’S FABLES By Aesop Translated by George Fyler Townsend (probably from this edition): “Three hundred and fifty Aesop’s fables”. Chicago, Belford, Clarke & Co., 1886.
Available at the Gutenberg Project.

N.B. ”Leading Change”: A seminar on leading and following change in libraries and other organizations. Sponsored by the University of Latvia. August 25-28. By John Lubans & Sheryl Anspaugh. At Ratnieki Conference Center, near Sigulda, Latvia. Instruction in English. Cost: 170 €. Includes tuition, accommodation, meals and transport from Riga.

On August 29th there’s a special reason to be in Latvia: the grand opening of the National Library of Latvia in Riga!

@Copyright 2014 John Lubans

“Down the Up Escalator.”

Posted by jlubans on August 05, 2014  •  Leave comment (0)

Caption:
In my misspent youth, along with a few of my anarchist delinquent friends, we’d run down the subway’s up escalator. Why, you may ask. It was a way of trading our subway fare for a slice of pizza. The platform at the bottom of the up escalator was unguarded so once there we’d be like “Charlie on the MTA” who’d “ride forever 'neath the streets of Boston”
Twenty-five years ago Francis Fukuyama’s essay claimed that democracy had won out over all the other ways for people to govern themselves; indeed it was the “end of history”. The Soviet Union and the Berlin Wall were in collapse; it really did look like, in 1989, the dawning of the age of democracy.
“History, (Fukuyama) wrote, appeared to culminate in liberty: elected governments, individual rights, an economic system in which capital and labor circulated with relatively modest state oversight.”
Fukuyama’s claims upset communists, anarchists, fascists, and other groups that support an authoritarian view of mankind. Man is not to be trusted, man must be controlled. And, guess who will do the controlling?
Recently, things have not gone well for democracy – maybe like Hungary’s Prime Minister Viktor Orban, who seeks to emulate Russia, Turkey and China, the world prefers something more “illiberal” in the way of governing.
So it is good to have Fukuyama’s most recent essay published in June assessing how far or not we have come over the past 25 years: “At the 'End of History' Still Stands Democracy:
Twenty-five years after Tiananmen Square and the Berlin Wall's fall, liberal democracy still has no real competitors.”
He admits to the problems faced by the 120 existing democratic states: backsliding and corruption in nascent democracies. And (in) the developed democracies like the USA, “financial crises, unemployment, blatant and rancorous partisanship… hardly seem(s) a shining example for other democracies.”
At the same time he points out that democracy takes time; in the long term, democracies have done exceedingly well. “We forget”, he says, “that following the revolutions of 1848— Europe's ‘Springtime of Peoples’—democracy took another 70 years to consolidate.”
“Once societies get on the up escalator of industrialization, their social structure begins to change in ways that increase demands for political participation. If political elites accommodate these demands, (and infrastructures of reliable public services develop) we arrive at some version of democracy.”
And, just like in organizations there is “political decay, which constitutes a down escalator. All institutions can decay over the long run. They are often rigid and conservative; ….
Moreover, modern institutions designed to be impersonal are often captured by powerful political actors over time.”
My introductory paragraph conflates Fukuyama’s up and down escalators. What I am suggesting is that organizations too are subject to decay, we go backward on the up escalator and forces – often an administration’s “powerful political actors” – converge to un-democratize the organization.
For me, global politics bear on how we organize ourselves in the work place. I see democratic nations as macro applications of democratic principles, and I see organizational efforts in this realm as micro applications. For example, see my “Un-democracy flipped.”
Fukuyama’s recent essay will be a required reading in my Democratic Workplace class that I will teach again at the University of Latvia this fall. While the essay is largely about economic and political modernization, I hope, it will help my students better understand why it is important for organizations to move toward more democracy, away from the authoritarian boss, the closed and authoritarian hierarchy.
Today’s organizations – even the most autocratic boss will confirm, albeit ruefully - have already, of necessity, become more open and participatory in decision-making. The boss is obligated to be less capricious, less egocentric and egotistical. A domineering CEO has to mask the blatant power grab, the naked jealousy, and the arbitrary punishment of those in the organization who disagree with the boss. We see more and more leaders who lead more like an unboss (trusting, participatory and encouraging) than the stereotypical KITA boss.

Libraries with copies of Leading from the Middle: You won’t find a cataloged copy at Harvard, but you will at London’s British National Library!

N.B. ”Leading Change”: A seminar on leading and following change in libraries and other organizations. Sponsored by the University of Latvia. August 25-28. By John Lubans & Sheryl Anspaugh.
At Ratnieki Conference Center, near Sigulda, Latvia. Instruction in English.
Cost: 170 €. Includes tuition, accommodation, meals and transport from Riga.
On August 29th there’s a special reason to be in Latvia: the grand opening of the National Library of Latvia in Riga!


@Copyright 2014 John Lubans

Friday Fable: Aesop’s “The North Wind and the Sun”*

Posted by jlubans on August 01, 2014  •  Leave comment (0)

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Caption: Tomie dePaola’s retelling of the fable.

“THE NORTH WIND and the Sun disputed as to which was the most powerful, and agreed that he should be declared the victor who could first strip a wayfaring man of his clothes. The North Wind first tried his power and blew with all his might, but the keener his blasts, the closer the Traveler wrapped his cloak around him, until at last, resigning all hope of victory, the Wind called upon the Sun to see what he could do. The Sun suddenly shone out with all his warmth. The Traveler no sooner felt his genial rays than he took off one garment after another, and at last, fairly overcome with heat, undressed and bathed in a stream that lay in his path.”

“Persuasion is better than Force.” Or, as another translation has it: “True strength is not bluster.”

I suppose “nudge” economics derives from this fable. You suggest a path for the desired behavior rather than require it.
Part of my career in libraries was during the verboten era: No Noise & No Food or Drink in the Library! Our wrath was mighty and righteous. By confiscating cans, bottles, coffee cups and pizza boxes we were saving books from insect and other dreaded infestations. We were preserving the human record for future generations! Yet, somehow we justified – at least to ourselves – staff pizza parties in offices filled with books. Our well-intentioned efforts were further undermined when we hosted trustee luncheons and donor dinners in the Rare Book Room – visible to every passer by. The double standard – as in much of bluster - was clear: “Do as we say, not as we do.”
No more shushing is vastly OK, but the spreading buffet in study halls and book stacks is hardly ideal.

*Source: AESOP’S FABLES By Aesop Translated by George Fyler Townsend (probably from this edition): “Three hundred and fifty Aesop’s fables”. Chicago, Belford, Clarke & Co., 1886.
Available at the Gutenberg Project.

N.B. ”Leading Change”: A seminar on leading and following change in libraries and other organizations. Sponsored by the University of Latvia. August 25-28. By John Lubans & Sheryl Anspaugh.
At Ratnieki Conference Center, near Sigulda, Latvia. Instruction in English.
Cost: 170 €. Includes tuition, accommodation, meals and transport from Riga.
On August 29th there’s a special reason to be in Latvia: the grand opening of the National Library of Latvia in Riga!

Leading from the Middle Library of the Week: Dakota State University Karl E. Mundt Library Madison, SD. USA.

@Copyright 2014 John Lubans

Scheduling Spontaneity

Posted by jlubans on July 29, 2014  •  Leave comment (0)

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I’ve long admired and used Apple products and services. At the same time I have never quite figured out how an allegedly tyrannical boss like Steve Jobs could evoke so much innovation, quality and customer-centeredness from his staff. Did fear really rule Apple?
So, I was drawn to a recent inside look at how the Apple design team worked as told by Mark Kawano, who worked for seven years in design (the iPhone and its many apps) and “user experience” at the Cupertino, California headquarters.
The interview with Mr. Kawano is broken into four myths; ones, which he counters with the way it really was. (N.B. I’ve tinkered with the wording of the headings.)
#1 Apple Has the World’s Best Designer(s).
Apple’s success in design is not traceable to a single person or design team. It goes back to a company wide culture in which “Everyone cares.” Everyone - not just the designers - thinks about the Apple product and its design. If you are an engineer, you think about the design of what you are working on. If you are in marketing, you are thinking about design and how it relates to the product you will be promoting. “Steve would say, this 'holistic' thing, is everything.” Now, there is nothing new in this. We all want staff to have the big picture and to work with that viewpoint, to made decisions with that big picture in mind. Apple appeared, under Jobs, to accomplish what the rest of us have longed for but rarely achieved.
#2 Apple’s Design Team is Huge.
If you are a contrarian like me you won’t be surprised that, in spite of being a large corporation, Apple’s design team was quite small. Instead of the 1,000 or more at Google or the hundreds at Facebook, Apple’s design team, under Jobs leadership, was roughly 100 people. How can that be? The how relates to Myth #1 and Apple’s emphasis on the “holistic thing”. Engineers, who were not part of the design team, nevertheless thought and worked on design concepts. They collaborated with the designers and were able to offer hands-on support; no fiefdoms or silo architecture at Apple. The take away for other organizations is Apple’s genuine collaboration: real working together without the turf battles, secrecy, and razor wire fences guarding one department against another. Again, just like the “holistic thing” this is not a new concept, but Apple made it work.
#3 Apple Schedules Spontaneity.
Apple tends to out perform other IT firms in its attention to detail, to its ability to anticipate what users want and need. Every product seems to come with instances of “meaningful delight” built into it. Other firms, Mr. Kawano suggests, try to emulate Apple’s inventiveness and creativity. What the other firms fails to understand is that the playfulness and spontaneity are not realized under a deadline. Instead, the small design team (100 vs. 1,000) has the freedom and expectation to use its down time to explore and to invent and to share what they are working on in their off moments. That’s where many of Apple’s “cool” stuff comes from – something played at three years before finding a natural home in a product in its design phase. The takeaway for other organizations is that creativity cannot be scheduled. You cannot order someone to produce cool stuff. If you give people time, resources and space to think, to play, to invent, then those shared ideas can be drawn upon during crunch-time.
#4 Steve Jobs Scared Everyone.
Apparently, Mr. Jobs was very demanding and very passionate about Apple products. He never could understand anyone who worked for him who would not give up nights, weekends and vacation to bring a product to market. That was who he was and he expected no less of anyone else. One of the article’s snarky comments sums up a response many of us might have to Mr. Jobs, the martinet: “Giving up weekends, vacations, generally any personal life, for a man’s passion to objects... yeah, that's healthy.”
But, if your job is not “just a job” there will be times when you do make sacrifices, when you do postpone personal stuff to focus on “work”. It’s not that you are forced to do this; rather it is what you want to do. You get into a “flow” state and find yourself losing track of time – but it feels good. If you work at Apple or any other creative and competitive enterprise, it may be difficult, if not impossible, to follow a 9-5 routine, with two coffee breaks and a hour long lunch with occasional chit-chat with your office mates.
That said, all work and no play does take a personal toll and research suggests that a balance between work and non-work will result in better products and services.
Mr. Kawano, when asked if Mr. Jobs ever complimented him, draws upon a pretty bleak history of personal interaction: "The only thing that was really positive was, in the cafeteria one time, when he (Mr. Jobs) told me that the salmon I took looked really great, and he was going to go get that."
At the same time, Mr. Jobs was very accessible and all for a democratic workplace in which he expected to be treated like everyone else.

@Copyright John Lubans 2014